OMG..fun88..Actually I was not much surprised about because I saw this happened before. see how the Player doing…only 2 players on a line .
2. What made me so much dissapointed is the way they responsed me when I sent to them all the pictures that i got. They avoided to talk about what showing on pictures and just focus on how my bets..blah…blah….
1. See how the player going…4players in a line
Here are pictures I got the day so you could check. Pictures taken both my mobile device and my P.C. The game results came out were totally different in same game same table same casino. My screen capture on mobile device
3. Please be careful with them casino online fun88, if you willing to throw away your money then go ahead as I did.
I knew they would try to find excuses and will never accept that they cheats us-players.
Maybe Im too addicted to the casino so even i knew they sometimes cheated me but i still playing with them. Compare with above picture and see
Casino online fun88
I was a player of this online casino fun88 but from now on I will stop playing. The table in between. But today even when i proved how they cheated me but they still ignored me….how am I disappointed !!!!!!
The casino online with fun88 I used to play is Royal Palace
Www.fun122.com. There were many times I found that they cheating but I had no evidence or the evidences not clear to prove.
The day I was lucky to capture my mobile screen where I used to bet on the baccarat game and at the same time took a shot on my P.C screen. Picture I took from the mobile device at the baccarat game lobby read this https://www.fun88no1.com
Then one day she was in a car accident and was hospitalized and she was unable to get her lottery ticket, and 4 out of 6 of her numbers were picked. I actually meet someone who wrote numbers from 1 to 99 on little pieces of paper and picked 6 numbers from the hat. For example if your birth date is 11-05-1971 you may use 11-05-19-71. There are many different games and the more they cost the less numbers you get to choose but the jackpots can be anywhere from 1 to 5 million dollars.
Unlike the lottery in keno you can pick your lucky numbers and pay for multiple games, instead of having to fill out a form for each game. She would not have won millions but it could have been worth a few hundred had she been able to buy her lottery ticket that week.
Make sure to play your lucky numbers every week. You can also play lottery type games in casinos and online casinos. its called Keno, and it is exactly like the lottery except instead of once or twice a week a new game starts every 5 minutes 24 hours a day 7 days a week.
With all the people in the world you would think there would be millions of different ways to pick your personal lucky numbers, but most people actually do the exact same things to pick their lucky numbers.
Besides writing online casino reviews Lindsy Jackson is an astrologist and gives people their lucky numbers and their horoscopes for gambling.. Later you can return to the keno area and they can run your ticket thru the computer and pay you for any wins you may have had. She played those numbers for years. The chances of you winning increase every time you play your lucky numbers because chances are you are closer to them winning then the time before.
Another popular way to get your lucky numbers is to read your weekly horoscope. This can usually be found in your local newspaper, but if you do not get the paper or your paper does not offer you horoscopes or lucky numbers then you can check them online.
The most common way to pick your lucky numbers is to pick your birth date and the dates of your friends of family. Then you are free to go about your business in the casino maybe play some table games or the slot machines. These people are the most likely people to play the lottery.
Lottery players will come up with what they feel is their lucky numbers and they will play them every week in hopes of one day winning the lottery and making all their dreams come true.
Now that you have your lucky numbers here are some tips on how to improve your chances of winning.
By: Lindsy Jackson
Don’t just play them in the state lottery. Parents will usually use the dates of their children.
Many people have jobs they hate or they love their jobs but they do not get paid very much. As a matter of fact the odds of winning the jackpot at keno are much higher then in the state sponsored lottery.
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arsenal. Dianne Feinstein, a California Democrat, asked recently.
A memo obtained by a British newspaper indicates that at a conference this summer, Defense and Energy department officials will consider questions like: “What is the uncertainty in confidence and potential risk threshold for a test recommendation–what would demand a test?”
But some members of Congress believe conventional weapons could do the same job, and worry that mini-nukes would blur the line between conventional and nuclear weapons. Defense officials said in 2002 that at present, the U.S could go from the decision to test to a trial run in two to three years. Duncan Hunter, R.-Calif., last May. Others contend that making more bombs is a bad idea if the U.S. A bomb of just one kiloton, detonated 30 meters below the earth, can open a crater wider than a football field, according to Princeton physicist Robert W. “Unless we do a lot more research and development and we find some quantum breakthrough in conventional systems, to go deep is going to require a nuclear capability.”. Nelson.
Announcing its approval of the bill Friday, the Senate Armed Services committee stressed that nothing in the repeal means it has authorized “the testing, acquisition, or deployment of a low-yield nuclear weapon.”
The Foster Panel, which studied the testing issue last year, recommended improvements that would allow a test within three months to a year of deciding to do so. wants to stop proliferation.
A kiloton is equal to the explosive force of one thousand tons of TNT.
But the administration says smaller nuclear arms may eventually be needed to deal with the emerging threat of rogue states hoarding weapons of mass destruction.
The ban — named after sponsors Elizabeth Furse, D-Ore., retired, and John Spratt, D-S.C. — did not prohibit designing a testing device with a yield below five kilotons, modifying an existing weapon for safety reasons or conducting research and development necessary “to address proliferation concerns.”
“Nuclear weapons have a unique ability to destroy both agent containers and (Chemical and Biological Weapons),” reads a 2001 Pentagon study.
“One way you ensure that there are no safe havens is to be able to go deep,” said Armed Services Committee chairman Rep. Edward Kennedy, the administration has budgeted $700 million for studying how testing might resume. Five people watching the surf from Hurricane Bill were swept out to sea at Acadia National Park in Maine. development of low-yield nuclear weapons.
The Bush administration may get permission to create kinder, gentler or at least smaller nuclear weapons if Congress overturns a ban on doing so.
The defense appropriations bill now winding its way through the Hill contains a clause revoking the 1993 Spratt-Furse amendment, which prohibits the development of so-called “low-yield” nuclear weapons – bombs that pack a punch of less than five kilotons.
Last year, the U.S. D. conducted its last nuclear test in 1992, and while the White House opposes the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty — which the U.S. has signed but not ratified — the administration says it has no plans to conduct a test. Crouch, the assistant secretary of Defense for International Security Policy, said in a briefing last year.
The move to clear the legal hurdles on manufacturing mini-nukes is part of a broad review of U.S. In the modern U.S. spent more in real terms on atomic defense activities than since 1962.
Strategy — In its Nuclear Posture Review last year, the administration identified Iraq, Iran, Syria, Libya, North Korea as countries where “contingencies” could arise that U.S. Two had been recovered and three were still missing as of 5 p.m. policy on nuclear weapons, which has included:
Bunker busters — For the second year in a row, the Energy Department is requesting $15 million to study the need for a Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP).
Supporters say these weapons might be necessary to deal with so-called “hard and deeply buried targets” in rogue states and terrorist camps, of which there might be 10,000 in the world.
Copyright 2003 CBS.
However, the administration is paying increasing attention to the possibility that it might at some point have to resume testing if there were a question about the reliability of the nation’s stockpile. According to Sen. “nuclear strike capabilities” must be geared towards, according to a leaked copy of the report.
The 1993 low-yield ban that the current defense bill would delete stated that “it shall be the policy of the United States not to conduct research and development which could lead to the production by the United States of a new low-yield nuclear weapon, including a precision low-yield warhead.”
But some experts contend that no bomb of any size could go very deep, because the heavier the bomb, the harder the impact — and the harder the impact, the more likely the bomb would explode before it reached sufficient depth.
Testing — The U.S. All rights reserved.
CAROUSEL – People watch as water breaches a rock wall at Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia, Canada, Sunday, August 23, 2009. “If you were to have a problem with a weapon system that you needed to rectify using a test, you would want to be able to do that faster,” J. ET Sunday.
AP Photo/Canadian Press/Tim Krochak
The Little Boy bomb dropped on Hiroshima delivered around 15 kilotons. Other efforts include developing lasers and computers to simulate aspects of nuclear tests.
Nuclear Stockpiles: President Bush has agreed to dramatic reductions in the number of nuclear weapons in the U.S. arsenal, the submarine-launched Mk-5 holds eight W88 warheads of 475 kilotons each.
“How can we effectively seek to dissuade others from developing nuclear weapons while we are going forward with the development of new nuclear weapons ourselves?” Sen. According to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the move “restores the nation’s ability to make nuclear weapons,” and was needed so the Energy Department could replace pits found unsafe or destroyed through regular check-ups.
By Jarrett Murphy
CBSNews.com’s Jarrett Murphy takes a look at the prospects for the U.S.
At the same time, however, last month the United States produced a plutonium pit — the core of a fission bomb — for the first time in 14 years. Last May, he and Russian President Vladimir Putin agreed to slash their active arsenals by nearly two-thirds, to 1700 to 2200 warheads each, within 10 years
Approximately 12 U.S. The U.S. Some 350 of these bombs are deployed at seven airbases in six European NATO countries; of these, 180 tactical B61 nuclear bombs fall under a nuclear sharing arrangement.”
“For 2007, the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists listed the U.S. All USAF Minuteman II missiles have been destroyed in accordance to START and their launch silos sealed or sold to the public. The Strategic Air Command which for decades had kept nuclear weapons aboard bomber aircraft aloft 24 hours a day was disbanded in 1992 and merged into the US Strategic Command. To comply with the START II most US multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles, or MIRVs, have been eliminated and replaced with single warhead missiles. Some Trident missiles are equipped with the W88 warhead.
- Heavy bomber group:
The US Air Force also operates a strategic nuclear bomber fleet. The bomber force consists of 94 B-52s, and 19 B-2s. Other warheads are in some step of the disassembly process.”
“- Land-based intercontinental ballistic and cruise missiles (ICBMs)
The US Air Force currently operates about 450-500 ICBMs at around 15 missile complexes located primarily in the northern Rocky Mountain states and the Dakotas. The first Minuteman III were removed under this plan in 2007 while, at the same time, the warheads deployed on Minuteman IIIs began to be upgraded from smaller W62s to larger W87s from decommissioned Peacekeeper missiles.. These are all of the Minuteman III ICBM variants. attack submarines are equipped to launch, but do not currently carry nuclear Tomahawk missiles. maintains about 400 nuclear gravity bombs capable of use by F-15, F-16, and F-35. Sea-launch weapons make up the majority of weapons declared under START II rules. However, since the abandonment of the START II treaty, the U.S. – Sea-based ICBMs:
The US Navy currently has 14 SSBN Ohio-class submarines deployed. goal under the SORT treaty is to reduce from 1,600 warheads deployed on over 500 missiles in 2003 to 500 warheads on 450 missiles in 2012. All 64 B-1s were retrofitted to operate in a solely conventional mode by 2007 and are no longer counted as nuclear forces.
In addition to this, the US armed forces can also deploy tactical smaller nuclear weapons either through cruise missiles or with conventional fighter-bombers. with about 5,400 total nuclear warheads: around 3,575 strategic and 500 nonstrategic warheads; and about 1,260 additional warheads held in the inactive stockpile. Each submarine is equipped with a complement of 24 Trident II missiles. Peacekeeper missiles were phased out of the Air Force inventory in 2005. The U.S. is said to be considering retaining 500 warheads on 450 missiles
The last of the original triggers were manufactured in the late 1980s.
The change in manufacturing process, from wrought to cast, has been a subject of debate and extensive analysis among those involved in nuclear weapons. These means included small-scale plutonium tests, technical data from past underground tests, and computer codes and models.
Project on Government Oversight: http://www.pogo.org
By H. The bottom line _ the pits produced meet all functional quality requirements for use and are fully accepted by NNSA.”
Sunday, January 20, 2008. The original triggers were made with the benefit of underground nuclear testing, which the U.S. So far, nine have earned the “diamond stamp” from the National Nuclear Security Administration, which oversees the lab’s programs. All rights reserved. no longer conducts underground nuclear tests, the Los Alamos scientists had to rely on other sources to replicate the original triggers and guarantee that the replacements would be as reliable as the old. Any variation or flaw in the pit could cause a warhead not to detonate properly or to detonate with less explosive power than expected.
The new ones were made by using a mold to cast the grapefruit-size plutonium sphere. Scientists at Los Alamos and at the government’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California concluded the change did not degrade the reliability of the triggers, according to NNSA.
FOXNews.com – Quality of Nuclear Devices Questioned – Politics | Republican Party | Democratic Party | Political Spectrum
The government will not say how many W88 warheads it has. That difference in cost was noted by Brian in the letter to the energy secretary.
Because the U.S. It meant the warheads, after testing that makes the original trigger unsuitable for reuse, could be reassembled with a new trigger and put back into service.
In an e-mail response to the watchdog group’s claims, Bernard Pleau, a spokesman for the agency’s office at Los Alamos, said the changes do not “compromise the integrity of the parts. She posed that question in a letter last Friday to Energy Secretary Samuel Bodman.
The Project on Government Oversight says it was told by some Los Alamos scientists that the trigger certified last July and known as the W88 pit needed 72 waivers from the specifications used for the original triggers, including 53 engineering-related changes.
Since last summer’s announcement, the Los Alamos lab has made 10 additional W88 triggers. This process is viewed by metallurgists as producing a stronger product.
On the Net:
Copyright 2008 The Associated Press. The original triggers, all made at the now-closed Rocky Flats facility in Colorado, were hammered into precise form. For years, however, testing the warhead’s components to ensure the weapon produces the intended blast instead of a fizzle has been complicated by a lack of replacement plutonium triggers.
Last summer, the first replacement plutonium trigger in 18 years received “diamond stamp” approval signaling it was ready for use in a warhead. halted in 1992, and through a different process than the replacements. At Los Alamos, it has cost an estimated $430 million over 10 years to certify the first trigger. To scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, that was a milestone to celebrate. The scientist spoke on condition of anonymity because of the sensitive nature of the issue.
Precise manufacture of the trigger is essential.
National Nuclear Security Administration: http://www.nnsa.doe.gov/
The agency acknowledged there were “more than 70 engineering authorizations” _ as it characterizes the waivers _ approved in the new W88 pit certification and that this was a “relative high number.”
But Los Alamos and agency officials bristle at suggestions that the new triggers might be less reliable or have flaws that could affect their performance.
A single trigger made at Rocky Flats cost less than $4 million. The result is a a massive hydrogen blast.
The government acknowledges differences between the old triggers and their replacements.
Resting atop the Trident II missile, the W88 warhead is among the mainstays of the country’s submarine-based nuclear arsenal. He was on a panel that last year concluded the plutonium in warhead triggers is much sturdier than previously thought, with a life span of as much 100 years.
Los Alamos National Laboratory: http://www.lanl.gov/
In a warhead’s detonation, a conventional explosive packaged around the pit compresses the plutonium inward, creating enough pressure for an atomic chain reaction. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.
“With this large number of waivers, how is it possible to objectively tell whether the pit will even work?” said Danielle Brian, executive director of the group that monitors nuclear weapons-related activities. JOSEF HEBERT, Associated Press Writer
“The manufacturing process for the W88 has been incredibly, thoroughly vetted,” said Jeanloz. That, in turn, creates the high temperatures and pressure to ignite a “secondary” nuclear component. Such approval means they are ready to use.
A watchdog group now is raising questions about whether the replacement triggers, also known as pits, can be guaranteed to be as reliable as those already in some 400 W88 warheads. That required extensive computer modeling and testing to assure precise shape, size and weight and that the triggers meet performance requirements.
At least one other replacement pit required 71 specification waivers, a Los Alamos scientist indirectly involved in the production process told The Associated Press. The number has been estimated at about 400, in addition to an estimated 3,200 W76 warheads that also are designed for the submarine-based Trident II missile.
Raymond Jeanloz of the University of California at Berkeley, a longtime adviser to the government on nuclear weapons issues, said in an interview he is not surprised there have been some modification in the W88 warhead, but that does not mean it is less reliable.
Kevin Roark, a spokesman for the Los Alamos weapons program said the changes in specifications “have been fully explored, fully vetted and fully accepted by NNSA and engineering analysis (conducted) by us.”
Officials say the cost figures reflect the fact that new facilities and a new process for making the replacement triggers had to be developed
The truth of the matter, however, is that from the very dawning of civilization the motives of war were not truly ideology, religious or political, they were profit motivated with ideology serving the demagogues of leadership to stir their followers into battle. Back then the family unit was considered the backbone of the entire nation and, for a great many Americans there really wasn’t “any place like home sweet home.”
I believe that it is important to start this story nearly ten years before America would be going into the war; back to 1932 when Franklin D. had joined the war effort was not Hitler or his cruelty but because of Japan’s sudden attack on Pearl Harbor. Many were Navahos who used their unique language to send coded messages but many also became infantry-fighting-men who saw a good many battles. And, the rationing of car/truck gasoline and tires depended on how far a person had to drive to work. So much prejudice prevailed among the white instructors from hateful resentment that blacks were actually going to become (American) airmen that much was done to discourage the black men and push them toward failure. In that same year Social Security was passed. Thousands of veterans’ wives, children began to run as the tear gas spread. In some cases entire families lived in cardboard or some other make shift houses. The Wall Street crash of 1929 had created a dark cloud of joblessness and stark poverty across the entire country and, for that matter, across much of the Western world–Germany would endure terrible “hunger pangs” as world economics imploded into virtual ruins. (Work Progress Administration) and for **the first time in history the U.S. At the same time Writers and Artists were given support by the W.P.A. Every family was issued a “Wear Ration Book” so that each family would have their fair share of the available food supply and that the wealthy couldn’t hoard. General Douglas MacArthur was in charge of the operations. This creates suspicion of all pre-war propaganda especially when we study the reasons we fought in the Spanish/American War).
In addition to all else the Midwest drought began in Roosevelt’s second year in office. As said, with few exceptions the American people had been united by the war effort. There is that old JohnWaynian saying that tells us War is Hell and sure enough it is but also it a cruel, human absurdity that should have been made obsolete centuries ago. This had been a result of American government creating laws meant to protect the individual from himself; something that would have made the forefathers roll over in their graves. The Ludlow Massacre in Colorado is a prime example of what I am talking about here. Some called it fascism! Certainly it put a lot of restraints on big business that changed the notions of free enterprise itself and, subtly supporting unionization considered, by many, as out and out communism at the time.
Sometimes entire American communities would join together in a scrap-iron drives. Nevertheless, a great many did only to discover that they were thought of as being a lesser value to the war effort than whites were; an unfair and ignorant attitude but one that even the government held especially because many racist whites refused to even fight alongside blacks at the time. Marlando
**America has never supported its artists to any great degree. After the war effort began, however, most men of working age were in uniform and serving in the armed forces so industry and business needed workers to take their place. While the efforts of the black soldier had some impact on gaining ground for equality in the country, equal rights would nevertheless not be truly launched until 1955.
As said in the above it turned out the wartime hardships actually served to weave the American people together…but not all the people. In fact, blacks were anxious to serve in the World War 1 because they believed their patriotism and willingness to fight for the country would gain a greater equality and respect for them. Hoover was the President then and he did not respond to the people’s outcries, he ordered the Army to remove them.
This certainly proved true for the postwar years and the baby boom exploded.
There was simply a pride in the nation during the war years that was destined for decades after the war. “Red Stamp” rationing covered all meats, fat, oils and butter. By 1933 9,000 banks had closed or gone bankrupted and a great decline in purchasing power followed.
As always people became quite creative during hard times–women for example would save their lard and sell to butchers for 2 cents a pound. In fact, by 1938 began the first year of minimum wage and also the year that Congress allotted billions for work programs and so there was a certain renewed optimism that Roosevelt had given the people; a new, kinder face of government. That is, whoever wasn’t “us” was “them” and whoever were a “them” were deemed enemies. All in all, over twenty thousand arrived in D.C. The movie of the times said it all–songs like “Sentimental Journey,” “I’ll be seeing you (in all the old familiar places) and Harbor lights–songs that are about the passion of romantic love and romance was everywhere during those years when especially young lovers never knew if they were to see each other again.
By 1931 there were millions of Americans out of work, there were soup lines, there was a virus of poverty spreading across the entire country except for the super-rich and super powerful at a time when the richest country on the face of the earth had suddenly fallen from grace. Actually, when one thinks about it, had a Japanese squadron of bombers planned to raid a city at night, they would have had spies set off flairs or beam lights into the air as a guide to the darkened city. On the other hand a renegade attack say, from a submarine–which happened by the way–a blackout would certainly make it impossible to line up an effective shot. After the war, men and women were anxious to regain what they had lost between 1941 and 1945.
In 1940, however, Hitler’s war machine had moved into France and had already been torturing and murdering countless Jews, Gypsies and others who were not Aryan and/or disagreed with Germany’s policies. Actually during the depression many Mexican farm workers were deported to give desperate whites jobs but during the labor shortage of the war they were gladly rehired and still being hired to this day.
And government propaganda created an extreme double standard for the times. (Remember blatant lies were told the American People about American ships being fired upon in Bay of Tonkin to create support for expanding the war in Vietnam. In a way they had to work “double shifts” in that they toiled during the day at their jobs and took care of the kids and other home duties in the evenings. “Blue Stamp” rationing covered canned, bottled, juices, dry beans, vegetables and juices. I do not want to sound like a commercial but the movie is to experience as opposed to merely see; in fact, you will never be the same once you are through the experience that I am referring to).
World War II American was also Imperfect
In view of those births out of wedlock, however, we must remember that during the war years it is essential for the prudes of morality to realize that both males and females tried to cram a lifetime of living into virtual moments of togetherness. Anyway, all in all, we Americans were extremely fortunate that our country never saw the horrors that that Europeans saw during those war years.
Franklin D. The training program was to train black pilots and crewmen to serve during the war at Tuskegee Army Airfield, in Tuskegee Alabama.
Food and gasoline started the rationing program but other items followed immediately like rubber, scrap metal, nylon (practically everything) so government could control supply and demand and assures the vast military that it would be supplied with their needs. There is simply no doubt that Jefferson was right–the government that governs least, governs best, but such a beautiful concept cannot blossom as long as government and business maintain a love affair.
As a quick aside, most virtually as soon as prohibition went away so did organized crime that lost its greatest source of income. When it was over, two veterans had been shot to death, an eleven week-old baby had died, an eight-year-old boy was partially blinded by gas, two police had fractured skulls, and a thousand veterans were injured by gas.”
The reason the U.S. And of course going back to the ending decade of the 1930s, Hitler
was to prove himself as the most evil of all history’s demagogues and there had been a great many in the arenas of cruel dictatorships.
Rosie the Riveter became the poster child for female workers. It didn’t. A lot of the Indian soldiers coming home from overseas chose to stay off the reservation and adopted city life for themselves.
It was this year too that Japan revealed its deep diplomatic anger at the Roosevelt Administration’s ban on export oil and scrap metals–both needed desperately for Japan’s continuing war with China. And, back then the axiom that tells us “a penny saved is a penny earned” was meaningful Indeed. The government’s image of Rosie was determined, loyal, patriotic and attractive. The Rosie image was…well…quite rosy. Racial prejudice still persisted in civilian life as well as in the military. Miners from West Virginia made their way to Washington’s street, sheet metal workers came from Georgia, an out-of-work American Indian, Chief Running Wolf– made his way from California to Washing D.C. It is directed by Anthony Hemingway and is a must see motion picture. (The National Recovery Administration) most basically forging an alliance between government and business.
While many poorer women worked before the war, middle class wives in majority stayed at home to tend to the house and children; cook meals and create a comfort zone for her family. When the law changed, the days of such gangsters as Al Capone had simply gone away.
World War II is, without any doubt whatsoever the most romantic era in all of history. Guys and gals wanted at least a small sample of loving togetherness in case…they never saw one another again.
By: J. Not that an eventual attack by the Japanese was not expected. Patton was one of the officers. building a make-shift camp across the Potomac River across from the Capital. Bill (National. Nevertheless, the right to the pursuit of happiness had suddenly been legislated and restricted in a sudden emergence of big brother governing under the Democratic administration of President Woodrow Wilson but supported by the next three presidents–Harding, Coolidge and Hoover–all Republicans.
The truth is that women excelled at their jobs and they were, in metaphor, Rosie the Riveters in human action. The only choice was to put women in positions that had been reserved for men before the war. At the time the American home front was in desperation. Not every working person in the country owned a car at the time and a great many people just continued walking to work as they had done before the war.
*Laissez-faire government is by far the best of all governmental structures ever conceived in all of our 10,000 to 15,000 years of so-called civilized history. When we truly imagine that many millions of people being tortured and slaughtered we are struck with the terrible reality of what Hitler’s totalitarianism and racism were creating. This had always been the case–most of the founding fathers were successful businessmen and during the Civil War days and the unfolding of the Industrial Age–men like J.P. in full traditional dress and carrying a bow and arrow to make his point. President.
There was simply a greater faith in government and America’s future by the time 1939 rolled around. This too was the year that the Wizard of Oz opened in theaters with its two great subliminal messages–success takes courage, a brain and…a heart. In ancient times gold, goats, cattle and virgins were the booty of victory today it is world markets and other controls. Indeed, they had left as “second rated citizens” and returned to being treated as “second rated citizens.” This caused many blacks to be less enthusiastic about joining the fighting during the Second World War. (My own mother worked at Douglas Aircraft during the war). Roosevelt won the presidency for the first time. In fact, the Mexican government agreed to a program that permitted braceros (contract labor) to come into the states to work for limited amounts of time. In this way the 1940s American-at-home were fortunate as the actual terror of it all was two oceans away.
This demagoguery had been consistent since the advent of civilization itself and has yet to change even in our own modern times. And quite suddenly, a great many people were outraged at leadership and many marched on Washington.
There had begun a chipping away of government being “of, for and by the people” and a construct of “them and us” began to prevail in the hearts of a great many suffering Americans who felt abandoned by the White House. In the meantime Germans continued to sink American vessels if we can belief the reports. Upon hearing this on their radios, the American people were even more enthusiastic to support the war effort against the tyrants of the world.
The dust storms hit again in 1935 which started the migration of field workers and farm tenants exiting the mid-west and migrating to California hoping for work. By 1943 60,000 Americans had already been killed but beyond the many tears and broken hearts, patriotism prevailed because Americans believed–heart and soul–that we were fighting for “right” and that made even the most devastating sacrifices acceptable. Heart! And that leadership, at bottom line is mere demagoguery and so to be aware and cautious of all political “wizards.”
At home one of the first changes that took place was rationing.
America’s War Years on the Home Front (1941-1945)
The second major act under the new Roosevelt administration was the lifting of prohibition. However, this “fight-for-right” belief did not simply occur. In the wake of this a 1940 headline read: As France Falls, U.S. Soldiers from all branches of the military home on leave before “shipping over” or simply in the service were in jeopardy of never seeing their next birthday much less having the time to plan for next year’s wedding. was clearly a maneuver that leaned toward socialistic thinking causing a lot of controversy at the time. had also warned Japan about putting more bases in the northern part of French Indochina which of course included Vietnam. At the time very few Americans knew the real details of the concentration camps or had an idea of the real suffering going on by millions of human beings. The Wall Street crash and banking mismanagement, however, landed an unwanted fly into the ointment of the national leviathans of commerce, travel, manufacturing and government.
In 1935 the Roosevelt Administration tried to pass the N.I.R.A. But government instructed women to do all they could to “keep the soldier’s moral up” and it doesn’t take a great deal of imagination to translate the hidden meaning here. By 1935, Roosevelt had created the Civilian Conservation Corps (the C.C.C. and “we” weren’t about to permit a small country like Japan, powerful as it had grown, to interfere with that. The movie stars Laurence Fishburne, Alan Payne, Cuba Gooding and others. (One reason the opportunity came about in the first place was the support of the beloved Eleanor Roosevelt, wife of Franklin D., who stood strongly behind the program and greatly favored the idea of lifting prejudices that especially belittled black servicemen).
Many male workers and male employers resented women on the job. And, if relatives weren’t close then baby sitters had to be hired and that cut deeply into the lady’s payday. George S. The problem is clearly that those who excelled in it, misused it and turned it into a weapon against labor; an enslavement really in the guise of employment. The black men persisted however and earned their wings. Washington was well aware that our response to our setting an embargo of scrap iron and oil was taking a high risk of Japan declaring war. Sad but true. (I was four years old when my mother worked at Douglas Aircraft during the war but she finally had to quit because she could not afford rent, and other costs of living including a daily baby sitter for me. Then, in that same year the W.P.A. MacArthur led his troops down Pennsylvania Avenue, used tear gas to clear veterans out of the old buildings, and set the building on fire. Nevertheless, those jobs also caused extra burdens on a great many women and especially those with children. Much of that propaganda said that every American needed to do their part–without complaint–and most Americans, as is said, stood tall.
Most husbands felt it disgraceful if their wives worked outside the home; as if they had failed as providers a taboo for married life during the pre-war years. Farmers were openly ready to revolt and government was well aware of the severity of the problems.
The men in training were put through a virtue hell during the process of earning their wings. As it turned out, World War II created a most admirable cohesiveness of the American people that had ever consisted in its history. The movie itself will put a lump in your throat and a song in your heart no matter what color you are. Except for a minute few, nearly every American was gun-ho for retaliating against the Japanese and believed that Hitler was a threat to freedom lovers everywhere. But, this suffering and this abandonment would create an enormous gateway into the presidency for a democrat promising a…new deal.
I was a small child during the war years with little understanding of what was going on but I remember overhearing adult conversations and wondering why so many tears were being shed. We left California and returned to Colorado Springs where she began to waitress again).
The government also encouraged growing “Victory Gardens” so for at least a few months out of the year people could have the vegetables that they wanted. And slacks for women became essential and suddenly popular–women “in pants” created a lot of poor-taste jokes from men who felt threatened by women’s entrance into higher paying jobs. (See the film, “Grapes of Wrath” that absolutely captures the dynamics of the exodus of poor dirt farmers).
In spite of the military’s double standard, obvious prejudices the black pilots becoming known to be the most feared by German pilots. The votes were overwhelmingly in Roosevelt’s favor who won by 5 million votes over the Republican President, Herbert Hoover and well over the Socialist candidate, Norman Thomas who managed only to gather around under 885,000 votes and the communist candidate that was only given around 100,000 votes. (I suppose no one noticed that bullets have no racial biases–they kill and maim people equally and without bias).
Developing the N.R.A. began to support musicians–The Federal Music Project had been formed. Laissez-faire had failed in his eyes and, truth be told, it had at least in these two ways. When will it ever change, when will we people ever learn from our own history? Is it such a giant step of understanding to simply realize that no matter what color we are, no matter what gender, no matter how we dress or what totems we bow to that we are all the same and our differences are only apparent?
In the following year, Franklin D. First it supported the N.R.A. During those years it was not unusual for children to be told to eat every bit of food on their plates and be thankful for it because there were children in Europe with nothing to eat at all. For one thing, it provided that industry be placed under codes of fair dealings and regulated wages, hours, conditions and collective bargaining. Eisenhower his aide. In this recognition it is accurate to say that American individualism has gone the way of high top shoes and whalebone corsets.
Not all food items were scarce of course. While it retreated back into undercover operations of mainly gambling, prostitution and drugs, it no longer held a kingdom of an ever growing subculture that had virtually ruled almost since prohibition began. moves from neutrality to non-belligerency. Even new plays were being commissioned under the federal Arts Project.
The Roosevelt administration made two vital changes. As a result lots of unwed mothers gave birth during the war.
What is little known is that around 25,000 American Natives served in the military during World War II. This is why we have so little art for our size of a nation in comparison to so many other places on the planet. There was very little in the news, however, about the horrors of his concentration camps what would eventually take the lives of six million Jews and four million others. In this same year Franklin D, won his third term as U.S. We were a country at war on two fronts and Life in the U.S. Then the Army moved across the bridge to Anacostia. Women in the War Years
An Unexpected View of History
(As a quick aside, George Lucas took 58 million of his own money to produce a great movie with
title The Tuskegee Airmen–he had waited 23 years to be able to put the dream into reality. Industrial Recovery Act) which would be President Roosevelt’s first failure as it would be denied as unconstitutional. Only four days later Germany and Italy declared war on us so Americans suddenly wanted revenge. As a result, the government quickly created a big propaganda drive to
entice women into the work force as part as their wartime duty.
President Roosevelt had inherited a troubled country when he was sworn in: At the time in 1933, 1 in 4 workers were unemployed, The steel industry was working at around 12%, the national income was less than it had been even in 1930 and some 5,000 banks had collapsed that took with them nine million savings accounts. The truth is that so-called civilization began in warring tribes called city/states creating “us and them” realities. Roosevelt won his second term in a landslide which was the biggest win in American history–523 electro votes! This in spite of the fact that at least one third of the nation remained “ill housed,” ill-clad” and Ill-nourished.” The depression years were still taking their toll. After all, America was standing in the way of Japan’s ambitions to control the tin, rubber and oil of Southeast Asia, a formable challenge to American markets. In the military segregation was everywhere just as it had persisted in World War I. In any case, all was not “rosy.”
Disregarding the prejudices against them the military created an “experimental” training program expected to fail even before it began. America’s military was soon enough called the best fed Army in the world.
Rationing was difficult to adjust to for most people but most people did not mind because they were doing what they could to help the war effort. Just about every man, woman and child who were not in the military were left with a feeling that he or she had done their part to make America a victorious nation over a very vicious enemy.
Our country had in trouble since 1920 when prohibition created an underground economy that would make bootleggers and other gangsters extremely wealthy and powerful especially in local politics and law enforcement. This created Roosevelt extremely popular except for the so-called moral right of the mid-west who had supported the 21st Amendment that had created the country (legally) dry.
Historian Howard Zinn tells us this: “Four troops of cavalry, four companies of infancy, a machine gun squadron, and six tanks assembled near the White House. It is said that 20 million victory gardens supplied around 40% of the country’s vegetables.
By 1923 big business and government were public bedfellows as opposed to being a closet relationship as it (mostly) had been in the past at least to the ordinary citizen. camps) that employed 500,000 workers. This Darwinistic attitude of pompous, uncaring for the worker is precisely what opened the doors for unionization and the socialistic tendencies that made Roosevelt so popular among the people. They were obvious black heroes just as a great many ground soldiers had been but generally without notice. In any case, the Tuskegee airmen proved their value to the war effort and to the world time and time again during the war. When the black Johnnies of the First World War marched home, they were treated ever as condescending by white society as they had been before they left. And, truth be told, the fact that the people were forced to give up eating a lot of red meats and fats created a healthier nation. Nevertheless, after the war, *most would return to home making as the spirit of home, Mom and Apple Pie had been missed during the war years. The government sponsored ads, radio shows and posters in a propaganda campaign that supported positive public opinion. The drought earliest disaster was with the wheat crops–they were so sparse along with other crop failures that farm prices fell by 50%. Moms simply took care of everyone, made sure the kids got to school on time, husbands had a nice breakfast before going to work; she put on the bandaids and kissed away the pain that occurs in all our daily lives.
In any case, on December 7th, 1941 the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor killing 2000 Navy men and wounding over 700. Major Dwight D. Well, those war years between 1939 and 1945 were hellish years with the rivers of blood running deep across much of our planet, even before our entrance into the battle fields in 1941. When we entered the war after Pearl Harbor, however, we became a country of unwavering determination; a proud and cohesive people.. (1) *Laissez-faire had created a Darwinistic philosophy that worked people long hours for little pay and often in dangerous conditions while the fat cats of industry and business kept getting…well…fatter! And (2) Laissez-faire simply created a non-compassionate greed that eventuated into the bank failures which were far more intrinsic to the “great” depression than was Wall Street.
Early Changes in the American Way of Life
There were out of work, hungry Word War I veterans who marched on Washington in 1932 holding government bonus certificates due many years in the future but calling for Congress to pay off in the present. In addition the U.S. was not a fan of laissez-faire, however. Nevertheless, the Southeast Pacific was of tremendous economic importance to the U.S. Now the people were privy to the idea that America was ruled by a mixture of politicians and wealthy business leaders. We will of course be talking more about Germany a little later.
One of the war tactics used by Americans at home was the blackouts; the placing black cloth over the windows at night so no light shined forth in case of an air raid. An irony to say the least!
The Mexican population also grew over the war years. Roosevelt swore to keep the United States neutral.
Even during the depression days of the 1930s the general lifestyle of America romanticized home, mom and apple pie as a metaphor for the warmth and joy of family life. Indeed, I was among the last individual recipients to be given America’s NEA Award for playwriting back in the 1970s when now the only art grants that are given are given directly to non-profit bureaucracies. Adding to the need for labor there was suddenly a huge war industry to keep producing. The soldiers set fire to some of the huts, and soon the whole encampment was ablaze. These “codes” are precisely what should have been self-imposed by business and industry operating under Laisser-faire; a compassionate capitalism, if you will, but instead big business was self-serving and unconscientiously self-centered. Before the war any woman who had sex before marriage was considered cheap and yes, sinful by those in the center of the American society. had suddenly changed.
*For further reading see my article “American Women in Review” on infobarrel.com
It was in 1939 that the Nazis attacked Poland to start the Second World War. was supporting its artists.
Blackouts Additional Information
Once war was declared a great many Americans either joined the armed forces or were drafted. And when the show is over, you will feel more educated on racial issues than perhaps you ever might have been. Morgan, John D, Rockefeller, James Mellon and Philip Armour were the rulers behind the throne in the Oval Room and the same type of men would later create the Spanish American War for purposes of expanding markets and a burning desire toward becoming a world power. And, the truth is also, that entering the war both the United States and England met in Newfoundland to announce to the world that their countries expected no aggrandizement for their war efforts as they respected the right of all people to choose whatever form of government under which they wanted to live. I remember traveling by train to California as a child and right before we got into Los Angeles the trained pulled to a stop and turned off its lights for full five or ten minutes during an official blackout
“People tend to associate poker with craps and roulette and slot machines and the Wild West.”
Supporters of the ban say Internet betting can be addictive and potentially drain people’s savings. McGowan said he’s skeptical of Nesson’s efforts.
“It does seem like it’s glorifying gambling,” he said. Sen. Jonathan Harr’s book, “A Civil Action,” documented the case and was later turned into a film starring John Travolta.
Woods envisions a “March Madness” tourney next spring to coincide with the NCAA basketball tournament.
Locally, Nesson wants to loosen Massachusetts’ limits on small-scale poker tournaments. “I’d like to be able to talk about poker and not have eyebrows raised,” said Woods, 24. Ellsberg faced up to 115 years in prison, but the charges were dismissed because of government misconduct against him.
CAMBRIDGE, Mass. You learn to be smart, you learn to win.”
He’s also lobbying Congress to overturn or amend a U.S. He’s still angry that an annual student-run charity tournament was canceled last spring because organizers did not know they needed a permit.
“I’d like to legitimate poker as an educational instrument,” Nesson said. “The industry is always trying to argue that these are games, not gambling.”
Charles Nesson wants governments to relax restrictions on poker players. law that effectively bans online gambling.
Woods said he is starting a fundraising effort to help his poker society expand to hundreds of campuses, and he may ask the alliance to contribute.
The Rev. Jon Kyl, R-Ariz., is a leading proponent of preserving the ban. – A Harvard Law School professor best known for defending the man who leaked the Pentagon Papers and for helping parents sue chemical companies in a case popularized by the film “A Civil Action” has a new cause: poker.
Nesson said the Poker Players Alliance, a 2-year-old lobbying group that claims to represent 809,000 poker enthusiasts nationwide and gets funding from commercial gambling companies, provided $10,000 to support a seminar last spring where he, students, academics, pros and lobbyists discussed strategies.
. Besides the legal arguments, they want to promote what they say are academic aspects of poker. They are planning academic seminars on poker for youngsters.
Andrew Woods, a third-year Harvard Law student who is head of the founding chapter, is planning a Harvard-Yale poker match the night before The Game, the annual November meeting of the universities’ football teams. The alliance estimates there are between 15 million and 23 million U.S. He said USC and UCLA poker clubs will square off before those schools take to the gridiron next month. “It’s a great way to learn and practice the skills of seeing what things look like from another person’s point of view.”
Nesson rose to fame by defending Daniel Ellsberg, who in 1971 leaked to the media the “Pentagon Papers,” secret documents that indicated the government deceived the public about whether the Vietnam War could be won. “You may be entertaining yourself but you’re not really engaging in a developmental activity, whereas (in) games of skill you develop skill. They are exhibition tournaments, with no money wagered, he said.
“Obviously the distinction is that in games of chance, you’re not using your brain,” he said. U.S. Richard McGowan, a Boston College professor and gambling expert, said he supports the ban because online gambling entices underage people and can lead to addictions. Without it, “minors are able to gamble from their own homes,” Kyl spokesman Ryan Patmintra said.
Nesson and Woods were on Capitol Hill last week, joining the alliance in pressing Congress to consider several new bills that would exempt poker from the Internet gambling law. He has formed the Global Poker Strategic Thinking Society with some of his students to promote poker as a fun learning tool and to redefine it as a game of skill, rather than a game of chance.
They created a Web site and are helping organize chapters at Yale, Brown, Penn State, Stanford and other universities.
Later, attorney Jan Schlichtmann persuaded Nesson, an expert in evidence, to join his legal fight against chemical companies whose alleged polluting was suspected of causing leukemia among children in Woburn. Internet poker players.
About a month ago, Nesson and several dozen students formed the poker society
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David Schwartz, director of the Center for Gaming Research at the University of Nevada–Las Vegas, points out in his 2003 book Suburban Xanadu that Las Vegas succeeded not only because of its reputation as Sin City, an exotic, remote enclave where people could go and behave in ways they wouldn’t in the presence of nosy neighbors, but also, and perhaps mostly, because it replicated the home environments of visitors. For the last 40 years, however, what happens in Vegas has actually been spreading to every corner of the country. They make cutting remarks about his fancy suits and his seven-figure salary. Commission on Presidential Debates and a board member of the International Republican Institute, which he founded in 1984. Bookstore chains such as Borders stock glossy gambling magazines with titles like Deal, Bluff, Casino Player, and Strictly Slots. “There’s a fissure between corporate conservatives and social conservatives–and gambling is that fissure,” Grey exclaims.
Sin No More
Copyright 2006, Gale Group. “If the nation’s politicians don’t fix this national disaster [of legalized gambling], then the oceans of gambling money with which Jack Abramoff tried to buy influence on Capitol Hill will only be the beginning of the corruption we’ll see,” Dobson declared in a January press release, carefully overlooking his own involvement in Abramoff’s efforts. In Hot Springs, Arkansas, full-blown Vegas–style casinos operated for decades .They hired entertainers such as Mickey Rooney to perform and attracted millions of visitors a year, even though gambling was officially illegal in Arkansas. For almost 400 years, prudent, risk-averse critics have been predicting a gambling-induced meltdown. That’s social morality. Thereafter, tribes realized they could pretty much offer any kind of gambling they wanted as long as the state permitted it under some conditions. In true lawyerly style, Fahrenkopfinsists he’s really the underdog: “I always say, ‘Tom, you’re Goliath, I’m David.
According to Fahrenkopf, it was New Hampshire’s 1963 decision to resurrect the lottery that really catalyzed a shift in public opinion toward gambling.
Alas, in trying to protect history from gambling, you also have to protect history from history. James Dobson’s group, Focus on the Family, employs an “analyst for gambling research,” Chad Hills, but when I ask him where anti-gambling activism fits into the priorities of his organization as a whole, he says, “It’s definitely one of our top 10 issues. “We need courageous office holders who will begin the process of shutting down lotteries, casinos and other gambling outlets.”
Instead, gambling opponents address the subject in terms of economics and public policy. Stacey Cargill, the leader of an anti-gambling coalition in Iowa and also a local Republican power broker, saw an opportunity to send a message to Romney. The tickets got cheaper, the drawings more frequent. In 1988 South Dakota citizens voted to permit casinos in Wild Bill Hickok’s old poker haunt, Deadwood. Today he is a co-chairman of the U.S. Eventually, however, some states started legalizing it so they could regulate it better. .
But then other states began introducing lotteries.
$55,322: median household income of casino players
Then the Great Depression prompted some state governments to reassess their prejudice against games of chance. In some states, you can use credit cards to purchase tickets; others offer subscriptions so you never miss a drawing. Bush. Seventeen U.S.
Gambling in America
81 percent: proportion of Americans who believe that casino gambling is either “perfectly acceptable for anyone” or “acceptable for others but not you personally,” according to a 2005 survey by the Luntz Research Companies
Whatever the rationale, the effect is noteworthy. consumer spending at casinos in 1994
And then, of course, there’s Jack Abramoff. law firms that proudly list gambling interests among their clients.
Wolf isn’t telling the people assembled here anything they don’t already know, but they hang on his words nonetheless. When addiction ripens in the market, so do the social costs.” Las Vegas and Reno have had gambling for more than 70 years now, Atlantic City for 30. When you get into personal morality, the person gambling is already getting beat. State lotteries are represented by the North American Association of State and Provincial Lotteries. Next came scratch-off tickets, advertising on TV and radio, multi-state lotteries with bigger jackpots. In the years that followed the Cabazon decision, Indian gambling exploded. There are plenty of statistics bandied about during the conference but few Bible verses.
Outside the Sheraton Hotel in Arlington, Virginia, rain is pouring in nearly biblical quantities. So Wolf and others who decry the Gettysburg casino effort are correct when they suggest that such a project would undermine the location’s historic atmosphere: The developers have plans for 5,000 slot machines but have expressed no interest whatsoever in betting opportunities involving insects. According to Henry Chafetz’s 1960 book Play the Devil, combatants on both sides of the Civil War “were addicted to faro, poker, casino, euchre, monte, seven-up, and chuck-a-luck.” Other accounts describe bored soldiers betting even on lice races. Inside, Wolf is accusing gambling of “tearing families apart.” It’s exploiting the poor, he says. On the other hand, you’ve got James Dobson, Phyllis Schlafly–social conservatives who oppose gambling. That trend continued as the New World moved toward nationhood. Playing the original New Hampshire Sweepstakes was about as exciting as getting a driver’s license: Tickets cost $3 apiece, they were sold at only three race tracks and 49 liquor stores, and drawings were held just twice a year. But since the state permitted bingo under some conditions, the issue was deemed a civil matter, not a criminal one. Each time, the judges ruled in favor of the Seminoles. consumer s pending at casinos in 2004
In all of those instances, the states weren’t just building casinos; they were resurrecting the past, creating Frontier-lands for adults in a bid for the tourist trade. commercial casino in 2004
A grassroots movement for gambling does exist in America, and it has existed for hundreds of years. He doesn’t need me to criticize him–he’s already losing. All across America, there are tiny, under funded groups of citizens who’ve come together to battle proposed Indian casinos or to protest the addition of slot machines at the local racetrack. Supreme Court came to a similar conclusion in a case involving a California tribe, the Cabazon Band of Mission Indians.
Other interest groups in the gaming industry have their own trade associations.
$13.8 billion: U.S. The gambling industry promotes gambling as a force that can generate jobs, increase tax revenues, and rev up related industries such as dining and lodging. They paint him as a well-connected fat cat whose only concern is how to further enrich himself and his cronies. In Michigan, however, there was no historical precedent to rationalize the casinos, just an economy suffering from a faltering auto industry. You have Methodist churches all over the country.You have an army of Methodist ministers that will follow you.'”
18 percent: proportion of adult Americans who played poker in 2005
It’s true. According to 2004 FBI statistics, Joliet suffers fewer murders, robberies, burglaries, and assaults than Salt Lake City.
Ten years later, Joliet’s situation seems much brighter. Many cities in the riverboat states and Colorado have featured gambling for more than a decade.
It’s a clever way to spin the situation, but it doesn’t make Fahrenkopf any less of a fat cat. High-stakes poker is a nightly staple on cable TV. He’s on the board of First Republic Bank and four other corporations. And when you purchased a ticket, you had to fill out a form with your address and phone number on it. But not necessarily up there in the top five, that’s for sure. Threatened with exposure, they’ll choose abstinence instead.
Enter bingo. Because of the tribe’s sovereign status, its leaders believed, they wouldn’t have to adhere to Florida’s bingo regulations. Two years ago, 11 counties had to vote again.
Greg Beato (email@example.com) is a writer based in San Francisco. As the tax-free tribal casinos started dotting the landscape, many state legislators started rethinking their stance on casino gambling. economy matured and diversified, mill owners, bankers, and storeowners lobbied for the demise of lotteries in the hopes that citizens would spend their money in a more productive fashion. The neon glitz of the Strip has migrated to the drab fluorescence of convenience stores and the soft, ever-present glow of PC monitors. As any contemporary gambling booster will tell you, Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in North America, was underwritten by a lottery conducted in London by the Virginia Company. At the turn of the century, the country boasted more than 300 tracks.
Perhaps even more significant than the sheer number of gambling outlets is our widespread cultural embrace, or at least acceptance, of the practice. The porn industry didn’t really take off until it became easier to obtain such wares in a private manner; first through videos and then through the Internet.
$151.7 million: consumer spending on organized poker in 2004.
The porn industry’s growth during the last few decades has mirrored that of gambling, but porn retains its stigma. Social reform in general was in vogue, and ending the lottery became one more cause alongside abolition, women’s suffrage, and temperance. “What happens here stays here,” the popular Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority commercials say. Twenty or 30 years ago, a man of his pedigree with his connections would have thought twice about even doing business with gambling executives. For some time now, state Senate President Robert Travaglini (D-Boston) has been trying to pass legislation that would allow the state’s four racetracks to add slot machines. In turn, the industry’s opponents claim the costs of gambling far outweigh any benefits. As Wolf delivers his speech at the annual conference of the National Coalition Against Legalized Gambling, the 200 or so concerned citizens in the audience murmur their assent. Preying on the elderly. “Fahrenkopf is the best lobbyist money can buy,” says Tom Grey, a Methodist minister and Vietnam vet who has been one of the most prominent voices in the antigambling movement during the last 15 years. From 1983 to 1989, he served as the chairman of the Republican National Committee.
Grey and other gambling opponents often position themselves as populist underdogs battling well-heeled institutional elites. Joliet is the fastest-growing city east of the Rocky Mountains, and dozens of new restaurants and bars have opened there in the last decade, including four in the spring of 2004. In Oregon you can bet on NFL games via the lottery; an increasing number of states use video lottery terminals that simulate slot machines. California alone has 53. For the first time in almost 70 years, the country would again have at least one legal lottery. Or the millions who watch professional poker games on cable. His first achievement: teaming up with fellow lobbyist Michael Scanlon and charging six Indian tribes an astonishing $82 million for three years of extremely part-time work, thereby draining them of funds they might have used more effectively to promote their gaming operations. Had all forms of gambling been illegal in Florida, the outcome would have likely been different, as Florida does maintain criminal jurisdiction over Indian tribes. After the governor signed the bill, voters in every community were asked, in a special election, the following question: “Shall Sweepstakes tickets be sold in this city or town?” According to By Chance a Winner, the Reverend Hartley P. And they’re all still standing.
54.1 million: number of people who visited a U.S. In a 1941 Gallup poll, 24 percent of those surveyed said they regularly played; the total amounts wagered were so substantial that throughout the 1940s, ’50s, and early ’60s, politicians routinely floated the idea of legalizing bingo or reviving federal and state-sponsored lotteries in order to get a cut of the action. Tribal casinos are represented by the National Indian Gaming Association. Unless, of course, you count the thousands of people who fill Las Vegas’ hotel rooms every night.
349,210: number of workers employed in commercial casinos in 2004
$27.54 billion: combined amount Americans spent on sporting goods and at movie box offices in 2004. In 1834, when most states permitted legal lotteries, reformers in Philadelphia branded the local manifestation a “poisonous exotic, whose noxious and rank luxuriance is pervading the land and blighting all our indigenous fruits, showing itself to be wholly unsuited and repugnant to the genius of American soil.”
In his 1996 book The Luck Business, the influential gambling opponent Robert Goodman painted a sad picture of the Illinois town of Joliet, which was hoping to benefit from riverboat gambling that was introduced in 1992. With the help of outside investors and a white-owned management company, the Seminoles opened a 1,200-seat bingo hall in Hollywood, Florida, and offered games seven days a week, with nightly prizes totaling as much as $60,000. Based on results if not intentions, the crooked lobbyist was actually a fairly effective anti-gambling operative. He can’t believe that the casinos destroyed by Hurricane Katrina may qualify for millions of dollars in tax breaks as part of the Bush administration’s plan to spur redevelopment on the Gulf Coast. “It’s going to happen,” he insists, “and it’s actually going to end up costing a lot more than Katrina did.” But Kindt and others have been making such dire predictions for some time now.
During the 1830s, 12 states banned most forms of the lottery. That same year, Iowa let its racetracks add slot machines to their facilities, thus creating the “racino.” (Today, racinos operate in 10 states, and seven more are considering them.) And though it’s still a legal gray area, online gambling is booming too, with more than 2,000 sites up and running. In one notable case, a lottery authorized by Massachusetts to pay for repairs to Plymouth Beach hadn’t declared a winner after nine years of play. But corruption wasn’t the only factor in efforts to eliminate the lottery. The litany of woes they ascribe to gambling in their presentations and pamphlets are the same ones McIntyre invoked nearly a century ago–family dissolution, crime, bankruptcy–but they hardly sound like preachers. From 1933 to 194% 22 states legalized racetrack betting. Source: State of the States 2005: The AGA Survey of Casino Entertainment
But you didn’t have to claim native heritage to get in on the action.
$28.93 billion: U.S. Unduly influencing elected officials.
In the 1700s, newspapers regularly published the odds on local cockfighting matches. Robert McIntyre wrote in an early 20th century sermon.
A Nation of High Rollers
“Gambling is a vice which flourishes only in concealment,” New York Tribune founder Horace Greeley editorialized in 1851. “You’ve got Tom DeLay, Ralph Reed, and [Americans for Tax Reform President] Grover Norquist at the feeding trough, taking money from gambling.
55 percent: proportion of casino customers who’ve attended college
Which is not to say that gambling is the can’t-miss miracle cure-all its boosters often claim it is, or that it doesn’t introduce problems and headaches of its own.
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The Abramoff Factor
Likewise, church bingo was ostensibly illegal, but that didn’t stop it from being the most popular form of gambling in mid-century America.
The lottery has evolved too. Gambling, McIntyre elaborated, turned men into “clammy vipers that crawl in the dank gloom of a sunless canyon.” Worse: They become “serfs of Satan” They abandon their wives and children. Its members may not paint signs and organize rallies, but every day, week in and week out, year after year, they perform the most significant political act of all: They vote with their wallets. But what industry doesn’t? According to a brochure distributed by the National Coalition Against Legalized Gambling, “It takes three to five years for gamblers in a newly opened market to exhaust their resources.
Mobsters also helped pioneer Las Vegas, of course, but under their reign gambling remained a regional, relatively modest phenomenon. In 1624 the Virginia Assembly made it illegal for ministers to play dice or cards. He’s a congressman, after all, and he gets it. Finally, in 1963, New Hampshire created a statewide sweepstakes. casino markets, covering every region of the country, recorded more than $500 million in gross gaming revenues. None of them, he charges, is doing enough to combat the proliferation of state-sanctioned gambling in America. Lotteries were the first manifestation of that, Atlantic City the second, but ultimately, for gambling to truly become mainstream, an act of God was required. They’re treated with compassion and support, as heroes who’ve overcome a predatory business determined to destroy them. And as the U.S. By 1996 only one new downtown business had opened–“a small takeout coffee shop”–and there was no new hotel or influx of tourists. In another corner, a muted television set broadcasts Fox News.
Not that the public needed much convincing. During the next few years, Illinois, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Indiana introduced their own versions of riverboat gambling, and Colorado introduced limited-stakes casino gambling in three former mining towns. Today’s gambling opponents often suggest that gambling has been pushed upon an unwilling public by revenue-starved politicians and their greedy industry benefactors. But the Louisiana Lottery Company was eventually suppressed, fleeing for more hospitable shores in 1895–when it reinvented itself as the Honduras National Lottery–and folding completely a decade later.
Don’t expect the intramural finger-pointing to end anytime soon. And all 11 counties voted to keep it.”
Local law enforcement officials tried to stop the operation, resulting in a series of suits. Southern states were slower to do so, and in 1868 Louisiana went against the grain, introducing a lottery to pay for reconstruction costs in the wake of the Civil War. “My arguments are moral,” he replies. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.
Americans’ enthusiasm for gambling didn’t ebb in the 19th century.
Of course, it’s not just aspiring casino developers who are part of a long American tradition; gambling opponents are too. Ben Franklin helped organize a lottery in 1746, and George Washington was–according to George Sullivan’s 1972 history of lotteries, By Chance a Winner–a “frequent ticket buyer” who won land in one raffle, five pounds in a 1763 lottery, and 16 pounds in a 1766 drawing.
In one corner of Frank Fahrenkopf’s office in downtown Washington, D.C., Old Glory hangs proudly on a six-foot flagpole. They turn to robbery and other crimes to finance their addiction but end up bankrupt just the same. In 1994 voters approved a referendum to allow casinos in Detroit. Gambling became a volume business, the city prospered, and soon people in other locales began wondering how legalized gambling might benefit their own states. All rights reserved. Corrupting the young.
How exactly did legal, overt, domesticated gambling become a standard feature of Main Street? Today in America, it’s actually easier to buy a lottery ticket than a Big Mac: There are more than 185,000 outlets where you can buy the former, only 13,700 that sell the latter.
$12.16 billion: total amount those workers earned in wages, benefits, and tips in 2004
Before the anti-gambling conference at the Sheraton, I ask Fahrenkopf’s sparring partner Tom Grey about this shift in rhetoric: the tendency to downplay morality in arguments against gambling, the elision of criticism aimed directly at individual gamblers.
FRANK WOLF, A 13-term Republican congressman from Virginia, is angry at President Bush, at Republicans in general, and at his fellow mainline Presbyterians. In less than a decade, new anti-gambling laws reduced their number to 25. Gambling, by contrast, is widely seen as just another recreational opportunity, no more exotic than going to a football game or a rock concert. As strong a tonic as concealment may have been in Greeley’s era–according to an 1851 document prepared by the legendary vice hunter Anthony Comstock, there were more than 6,000 gaming establishments in New York City, at the time–it turns out that when you draw back the curtains, advertise gambling via huge neon cowboys, and put a lottery machine in every grocery store, gambling flourishes even more. Now the downtown area boasts a minor league baseball park and a new NASCAR racetrack. Our battle is with the product and the purveyors of the product.”
Meanwhile, all across America, you can point to cities that built their economies around more traditional industries–cities that pursued the Puritan ethic of hard work, the production of tangible goods–only to suffer “manufacturing Katrinas” and “farming Katrinas.” As any church that’s found financial salvation through bingo knows, God works in mysterious ways. He believes, like they believe, that legalized gambling, pushed on the public by cash-starved states, is a major threat to America. In 1967 the Nevada legislature made it legal for publicly traded companies to purchase gambling licenses, and the corporatization of the commercial casino industry began. Investment capital grew cheaper and more abundant, and that meant developers were able to add more hotel rooms, build bigger casinos, and introduce more non-gambling attractions such as theaters and restaurants. Harvard and other institutions of higher learning used lotteries to finance construction projects, as did numerous churches. Eventually, this would be the country’s only legal lottery, and as such it enjoyed a popularity that extended to every state. If that seems unremarkable, try to imagine an America where, every night on Bravo, you could tune into an hour-long series called Celebrity Gangbang Showdown. I would say that gambling falls within the 5-to-7 range.”
This can be true. But does this mean the proliferation of legalized gambling has transformed us from productive, hard-working Puritans into incorrigible gluttons of chance? Or are we simply expressing appetites we’ve had all along?
One shouldn’t underestimate the role the industry itself played in transforming its status from sinful vice to all-American pastime. They disappoint their parents. Nearly a decade ago, Congress funded the National Gambling Impact Study Commission to determine the economic and social consequences of legal gambling, and in 1999, after two years of study, the commission concluded that it was time “to consider a pause in the expansion of gambling.” And perhaps for a moment somewhere, such a pause was considered. But in 1963, the ultimate decision of whether to introduce the sweepstakes was left up to the state’s citizens. In 1931, hoping to develop new revenue sources, Nevada legalized casino gambling. With all 13 colonies establishing lotteries at one time or another, government-approved gambling was one of the original features of the landscape. And so far, while gambling has surely ruined myriad lives, there’s no casino Katrina they can point to. Needless to say, he’s no favorite among anti-gambling activists. They occasionally employ the m-word when talking about the industry, but as for the gamblers themselves–well, nobody seems to be calling them “serfs of Satan” these days.
Entering the Mainstream
Doesn’t he realize it isn’t supposed to be like this?
“Not only does gambling dethrone God, but it degrades man,” Rev.
An Act of God
Other forms of legalized gambling weren’t faring much better.
For the last 12 years, Fahrenkopf also has been the president and CEO of the American Gaming Association. I only have casinos in II states. Now he’s their official representative. As he speaks, he punches at the air with his right fist. Today Utah and Hawaii are the only states where no form of gambling is legal. Then four more states introduced lotteries, and the number of Indian casinos in the country rose from around 160 to approximately 400. In that capacity, he tries to convince federal legislators that what’s good for the commercial casino industry is good for America. But only for a moment. His second achievement: using Ralph Reed, the former director of the Christian Coalition, to enlist Jerry Falwell, James Dobson, and other conservative activists to oppose gambling expansion in various Southern states. Or the tens of millions who buy lottery tickets every week. Annual visits to commercial casinos nearly doubled, jumping from 162.4 million in 1999 to 319 million in 2004. But with gambling, the reverse has occurred: The more public it got, the more it flourished. Until the early 1970s the game was illegal but tolerated in many states, where authorities weren’t eager to crack down on church fundraisers and other philanthropic efforts. “By exposure it dies.
In the past, Romney had been relatively’ open to the idea of expanding gambling in the interest of generating more tax revenues for Massachusetts. The Seminoles were allowed to exercise their sovereignty and set their own rules. As if that weren’t benediction enough, there’s also a photo of Fahrenkopf meeting Pope John Paul II.
After a stint as one of two conservative students at Berkeley’s Boalt Law School during the era of the Free Speech Movement (former Solicitor General Ted Olson was the other), Fahrenkopf began his career as a trial lawyer and eventually moved into politics.
That changed dramatically when the Seminole Indians decided to enter the bingo business in 1979. Sure, Abramoff was simply trying to protect his gaming tribe clients from increased competition–a fact the conservative activists insist they didn’t know–but that doesn’t mean he didn’t help stop gaming expansion. “If [gambling] is morally wrong, my God, how can government be operating it?” he says, voicing the general sentiment that followed in the wake of New Hampshire’s decision. “And every eight years in those counties that opted for gaming, it has to come back to the polls again. “They’re about just economics, good uncorrupted government.
$47,270: median household income of general U.S. But just 10 days after Cargill publicized her plan, Romney wrote a letter to The Boston Globe declaring, “If someone would bring forth a gambling expansion proposal, it is not something I would support, given our economic circumstances and the social costs associated with gambling.”
53 percent: proportion of adult Americans who played the lottery in 2005
Last fall conservative activists in Iowa appeared to have some success in making Massachusetts governor and presidential hopeful Mitt Romney see things their way. Today there are 400 tribal casinos in 30 states. The casinos have provided hundreds of local jobs, and the tax revenue they generate has helped Joliet improve its streets, sewers, lights, and sidewalks, and fund local schools. Rarely, however, do they speak so plainly, or with such mellifluous thunder, about God, sin, or morality.
$2.86 billion: consumer s pending at racetrack casinos in 2004
“Now we see,” Wolf complains at the Sheraton, “as if our nation isn’t saturated enough with gambling, a group of investors this spring has announced plans to try to open a casino two miles from historic Gettysburg.” To desecrate such hallowed ground, Wolf implies, isn’t just a lapse of good taste; it’s a blight on our national honor. Progressive reformers aimed to cleanse cities and towns of institutions where “vice” was bred, and along with saloons one of their favorite targets was racetracks. In 1989 Iowa legislators passed the Excursion Gambling Boat Act, which opened the way for modern riverboat casinos. Illegal gambling flourished too, and some of these “underground” operations were as organized and as open as legal ones. Grandin of the New Hampshire Council of Churches was certain that the state’s “God-fearing” citizens would reject “this basically immoral legislation.” Instead, more than 93 percent of the state’s 200-plus communities voted in favor of the lottery. “That’s the moral reformer’s traditional perspective on “vice.” Custodians of the public good invariably believe that because they find some activity objectionable, those who pursue it must feel the same way too, and thus be ashamed of their passions. He’s disgusted by once-honorable D.C. He’s exasperated by President Bush’s refusal to place a moratorium on the expansion of Indian gambling. Legal bingo was generally a small-stakes affair; in Florida in the 1970s, for example, jackpots were limited to $100, and charitable and civic groups could hold games only two nights a week. In a Gallup Lifestyle Poll released in March 2004, for example, only 6 percent of those surveyed said gambling had been “a source of problems for their families.” In contrast, a similar Gallup poll released a year earlier found that 31 percent of those surveyed said that alcohol had been a source of problems for their families. The walls are hung with pictures of Fahrenkopf posing with his old boss Ronald Reagan and his other old boss George H.W.
John Kindt, a professor of business administration at the University of Illinois who writes frequently about gambling, says it will take a “casino Katrina”–the economic crash of an entire city or region that has made gambling a cornerstone of its local economy–to awaken people to the perils of gambling. Nearly three decades later, he was still playing: In 1793, when the District of Columbia sold 50,000 lottery tickets at $7 apiece to raise funds for federal buildings, Washington purchased tickets for himself and his friends. Thanks to the example of Las Vegas, craps and roulette were seen not only as a way to generate tax revenues but as engines of economic development that could transform regions blighted by industries in decline. The inevitable result of their affliction: “complete moral atrophy.”
$4.74 billion: amount of direct state and local gaming tax paid by commercial casinos in 2004
In 1987 the U.S.
53 percent: proportion of Americans who’ve attended college
What once was quarantined and exotic, limited to those who lived near Las Vegas or could afford to play there, is now commonplace and mundane. Most of the conference’s organizers are Methodists like Grey, and a majority of attendees are Christians of one sort or another. And pretty much everyone in Washington will readily take his calls. Indeed, pretty much every object in his office the GOP elephant statue on his desk, his photographic wall of fame, his natty blue and white suspenders-seem selected to project his status as an insider, a man who has been brokering deals at the loci of power for many years. But it’s Fahrenkopf who generates the most ire amongst gambling opponents, and that’s because he personifies the mainstreaming of gambling. I’ve never met a grassroots movement that wants more gambling.”
Even among social conservatives who are avowedly concerned about gambling, it’s not a big concern. One thing seems fairly evident, though: If the gambling industry really is having a devastating impact on American culture, the general public seems fairly oblivious to it.
Outside this room, that belief is less common.
The Gambling Vote
One of the city’s most influential casinos was El Rancho Vegas, built in 1941 and, in Schwartz’s words, designed like “a suburban subdivision rather than existing urban gambling milieus.” Located two miles south of the city’s downtown, just off the main highway from Los Angeles in the area that would come to be known as the Strip, the El Rancho proved quite attractive to tourists from Southern California; its private bungalows, with their own lawns and kitchens, allowed visitors to “escape from the rigors of suburban life by relaxing in a facsimile of it”
Fahrenkopf dismisses such threats.” If I were Mitt Romney, I’d say, ‘Wait a minute, the people of Iowa voted for gaming,'” he says. population
Some crooked operators actually lived up to such rhetoric. But grassroots groups that want more gambling? There are none.
Naturally, both sides have compiled statistics that bolster their cases, and each side says the other is lying. The city’s effort to revitalize itself via gambling, Goodman suggested, was a terrible flop. They targeted high rollers, not Midwestern grandmas.
On most of these points, today’s gambling opponents no doubt concur.
Even so, gambling opponents are casting Abramoff as the enemy and trying to parlay the general stink surrounding him into legislative action. If blackjack and roulette were permitted during Vegas–style fundraisers for local civic organizations, Indian tribes could open full-blown casinos. “If Mitt Ronmey is going to engage in incorporating casino slots as a form of economic development for the state of Massachusetts, we will spread the word and ask the state of Iowa to vote for another candidate in the caucuses,” Cargill told The Boston Globe. Once this issue becomes more visible nationally, people are going to start wondering, ‘Where do the Republicans stand?’ This business is being driven by politicians and promoters in backrooms for their own enrichment